The tools used to achieve these objectives include:

1. National Policy Review (NPR)

National Policy Review (NPR) at the National and State (for Odisha and Tamil Nadu in particular) level to understand the implementation process of the SBM, funds allocated and spent, secondary data used therein

2. Citizen Report Cards (CRCs)

Citizen Report Cards (CRCs) in selected districts in Odisha and Tamil Nadu to assess the current construction and usage patterns through feedback from users and implementers

3. Case Study Research

Case Study Research in selected Gram Panchayats in each of the selected districts for an in-depth understanding of the demand-side issues and supply-side constraints

4. CRC+

CRC+ exercises in selected Gram Panchayats in each district to assess fund flow (SET or Selected Expenditure Tracking) and functional responsibilities (FMA or Function Marker Analysis) handled by implementers

5. Community Score Cards (CSCs)

Community Score Cards (CSCs) in selected Gram Panchayats in each district to try and improve forums for communities to place their voices and demand accountability.